Week 1 discussion response to classmates

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. Main references come from Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018) and/or American Psychiatric Association. (2013). You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation regarding treatment. I have also attached my discussion rubric so you can see how to make full points. Please respond to all 3 of my classmates separately with separate references for each response. You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation like peer-reviewed, professional scholarly journals. If you draw from the internet, I encourage you to use websites from the major mental health professional associations (American Counseling Association, American Psychological Association, etc.) or federal agencies (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institutes of Health (NIH), etc.). I need this completed by 03/03/19 at 3pm.

Expectation:

Responses to peers. Note that this is measured by both the quantity and quality of your posts. Does your post contribute to continuing the discussion? Are your ideas supported with citations from the learning resources and other scholarly sources? Note that citations are expected for both your main post and your response posts. Note also, that, although it is often helpful and important to provide one or two sentence responses thanking somebody or supporting them or commiserating with them, those types of responses do not always further the discussion as much as they check in with the author. Such responses are appropriate and encouraged; however, they should be considered supplemental to more substantive responses, not sufficient by themselves.

Read a your colleagues’ postings. Respond to your colleagues’ postings.

Respond in one or more of the following ways:

· Ask a probing question.

· Share an insight gained from having read your colleague’s posting.

· Offer and support an opinion.

· Validate an idea with your own experience.

· Make a suggestion.

· Expand on your colleague’s posting.

1. Classmate (A.Mc)

Historical Development

Aside from the initial discovery of state-altering substances, it is difficult to pinpoint a specific development that has contributed the most to addictive disorders. However, in the 15th century, it was discovered that the process of distillation would increase the potency of alcohol (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). In my opinion, this development may be representative of people’s increased dependency on alcohol and their increased desire to suppress emotions and pain. The original development of alcohol distillation may have changed the mindsets of buyers and sellers of alcohol, with parties always searching for the next strongest “downer.” Ultimately, this mentality facilitates the process of becoming addicted to a substance.

Current Trends and Contemporary Variables

As time passes, I think it is becoming more apparent that each individual experiences their addiction quite differently. In fact, some research has concluded that there is no universal approach to addiction (Hester & Miller, 2003, as cited in Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). Neuroscience research reinforces that alcohol and drugs target the brain; being able to better understand what is happening in the brain, may better inform substance-use treatment and interventions (Nutt & McLellan, 2012). To complete this thought, every individual’s chemical makeup, even in the brain, is certainly unique. Thus, addictive counselors must strive for individualized treatment and intervention plans. There are arguments against neuroscience research. Some of which say that the research will blind policy makers, resulting in a lack of population-level approaches (e.g. taxation and regulations) that have been shown to work in the past (Gartner, Carter, & Partridge, 2012).

           There is a gap of services for those on different ends of the socioeconomic pole. For example, those with lower socioeconomic status do not have access to high standards of mental health treatments (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). Further, different tiers of insurance plans may cover different treatments or different parts of treatments. Thus, the treatments provided to individuals in need may be dictated by insurance companies, rather than by the practitioner (i.e. the treatments given might be the most cost effective, not necessarily what is needed).

Field Advancement

I have seen a lack of communication and many gray areas in the field of addiction treatment. An individual’s addiction treatment is primarily their responsibility, however, oftentimes a supportive environment is important. This environment might consist of therapists, family, friends, sponsors, and other mental health and medical professionals. My brother, who struggles with addiction, was doing very well before he got into a car accident with a semi-truck. With numerous back injuries, he was admitted to the hospital. Upon initial care, my mom took the time to let his doctors know that he struggles with addiction and that addictive pain killers (for his back) would not be healthy. What felt like seconds after I walked out of the hospital with my mom, leaving him in the hands of medical professionals, he was given addictive pain killers, which ultimately led him to relapse. I understand that it is a physician’s job to treat pain, and they can face legal consequences for undertreating pain (Dineen & DuBois, 2016); however, I have been unable to find any guidelines which encourage medical professionals not to prescribe addictive treatment methods to patients like my brother. In fact, during a breakout session during pre-practicum 1, I asked the session instructor about this, and she told me that doctors are not required to refuse addictive painkillers to those who are struggling with addiction. To advance the field of addiction treatment, I believe that we need to advocate for individuals like my brother who have a hard time saying no. Further, I would love to see a more collaborative effort, more communication, and more understanding between all players moving in and out of the environment of these individuals.

References

Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A strengths perspective (4th
            ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.

Dineen, K. K., & DuBois, J. M. (2016). Between a rock and a hard place: Can physicians  
            prescribe opioids to treat pain adequately while avoiding legal sanction? American
            journal of law & medicine
, 42(1), 7-52.

Gartner, C. E., Carter, A., & Partridge, B. (2012). What are the public policy implications of a
            neurobiological view of addiction? Addiction, 107(7), 1199–1200. Retrieved from the
            Walden Library databases.

 Nutt, D., & McLellan, A. T. (2012). Can neuroscience improve addiction treatment and
            policies? Public Health Reviews, 35(2), 1–12. Retrieved from the Walden Library
            databases. 

2. Classmate (J.Car)

Historical Development that Contributed Most to Addictive Disorders

During America’s earliest years, the use of alcohol expanded from being applied medicinally and enjoyed as an element of social gatherings to what Van Wormer & Davis (2018) describe as a breakdown of the family. Rum was considered to be the main culprit, leaving men and women addicted and consistently drinking in excess which resulted in families left as casualties in the wake of debauchery and threat of harm. Men, women, and even children could be found in local taverns, centering community around the distribution of alcohol and reinforcing the need for its production economically (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). Early Americans did not recognize alcoholism as a detriment until the temperance movement of the mid 1800’s, when the need for moderation was emphasized after recognition that excessive drinking was becoming a detriment to the family and to society as a whole. When alcohol was banned during Prohibition, Americans desperate for a replacement moved rapidly to a new addiction of cocaine, revealing that no level of outlawing could prevent the addictive behaviors of the general public. Opium, cocaine, and especially cigarettes continually grew from being used in moderation to use in excess, leading to kneejerk reactions by the government in order to regulate amounts used and return order to society. Unfortunately, these prohibitions and legislations only led to a reinforcement of substituting one addictive and gratifying substance for another. Creating a culture that embraced addiction to a substance, whether inadvertently or not, has become an unfortunate hallmark of our American life where citizens still move from one form of addiction to another as opposed to attacking the root issue beneath our needs for gratification. Without education regarding the negative impact of alcoholism and with the strict outlawing of substances, those who imbibe will be left to his and her own devices and go to great lengths to appease their desires regardless of the detrimental consequences. In simpler terms, prohibition created a behavior of desperation for and excessive consumption of an addictive substance, as stated by Van Wormer & Davis (2018) with regard to alcohol, made drinking it synonymous with drunkenness.

How Current Trends in Addiction Counseling Reflect Changes in Contemporary Research, Public Policy, and Socio-economic Variables

      Just as the history of treating addiction in America was once a range of all or nothing, Prohibition or completely unrestricted use with little moderation, so are the methods of treatment today. 12 step programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous mandate immediate abstinence from alcohol, offering the accountability of a group and expecting each member to follow a set curriculum of required benchmarks toward full recovery from addiction. More recently the harm reduction model was instituted, catering to each client individually with a focus on client control of reducing risks while using substances rather than attaining a goal of complete abstinence (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). The current consensus is slowly developing that both methods can be highly effective in the long term depending on the individual and his or her level of addiction. Use of medical intervention for addiction and a label of ‘brain disease’ may inhibit an individual’s self-efficacy, relying on medications and potentially labeling themselves as unable to overcome addiction based upon a diagnosis (Gartner, Carter, & Partridge, 2012). It is imperative that counselors recognize the vilification of individuals who abuse drugs and alcohol, many of whom have been incarcerated for specified amounts in possession. In the past, the label of diseased or criminal have been implemented for individuals who are addicted to drugs and alcohol, creating a stigma that those who struggle with addiction are evil or defective at a certain level. However, clients do have the power to overcome addiction and with the therapeutic alliance in the forefront, counselors can work collaboratively with clients, examining both consequences and solutions to the client’s drug use as interpreted by him or her (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). Instead of incarcerating individuals for drug abuse, new programs such as the drug court movement create opportunities for healing and productivity instead of operating from the mindset of strict remediation. At a community level, programs such as these will be offered to individuals of a lower socioeconomic status who may not be able to afford treatment based upon lack of health insurance or availability of treatment options.

Ideas for Advancing the Field of Addiction Treatment

Prevention and education regarding addiction beginning at an early age has the potential to at least begin the conversation about why abuse of drugs and alcohol are risks that should be more closely evaluated before they are started. Akkus, Eker, Karaca, Kapisiz, &b Acikgoz (2016) report on a study of the effectiveness of a Peer Education Program Preventing Addiction, which valued the influence of students on one another with regard to choosing to abuse substances or abstain based upon the involvement of one’s peer influences. Through the modeling of students who were prominent influencers, according to a Who Is It? test, students modeled desired behavior, for example, abstaining from drinking alcohol, drugs, and attending counseling sessions. Students leading by example as Peer Educators were shown to be effective in preventing risk taking behaviors of their mentee classmates, with higher scores in self-efficacy and addiction treatment education than those in a control group. Moving as a culture from a reactive and remedial perspective to a preventative one regarding addiction may serve to lower the incidences of incarceration and abuse due to strengthening of self-efficacy and a commitment from a young age to take notice of and repair addictive behaviors.

References

AKKUŞ, D., EKER, F., KARACA, A., KAPISIZ, Ö., & AÇIKGÖZ, F. (2016). Is Peer Education Program An Effective Model in Prevention of Substance Addiction in High-School Teens? Journal of Psychiatric Nursing / Psikiyatri Hemsireleri Dernegi, 7(1), 34–44. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.5505/phd.2016.59489

GARTNER, C. E., CARTER, A., & PARTRIDGE, B. (2012). What are the public policy implications of a neurobiological view of addiction? Addiction, 107(7), 1199–1200. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03812.x

Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A strengths perspective (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.

Required Resources

· Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A strengths perspective (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.

o Chapter 1, “The Nature of Addiction” (pp. 3–49)

o Chapter 2, “Historical Perspectives” (pp. 51-87)

· Courtwright, D. T. (2012). Addiction and the science of history. Addiction, 107(3), 486–492.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

· Gartner, C. E., Carter, A., & Partridge, B. (2012). What are the public policy 0implications of a neurobiological view of addiction? Addiction, 107(7), 1199–1200.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

· Nutt, D., & McLellan, A. T. (2012). Can neuroscience improve addiction treatment and policies? Public Health Reviews, 35(2), 1–12.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. 

· Document: Final Project (PDF)

· American Counseling Association (ACA). (2014a). ACA code of ethics [A.1, A.4, and A.6 only]. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/docs/ethics/2014-aca-code-of-ethics.pdf?sfvrsn=4

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (n.d.). Approaches to Drug Abuse Counseling: A Psychotherapeutic and Skills-Training Approach to the Treatment of Drug Addiction [Sections 4 and 5 only]. Retrieved February 20, 2019, from https://archives.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/approachestodacounseling.pdf 







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