A ________ has a medical degree and is a medical doctor who


1) A ________ has a medical degree and is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.



psychiatric social worker


2) Which of the following is a guideline for doing research with people?

Participants cannot just quit without a valid, logical reason.

Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participation.

Participants must understand that confidentiality is not guaranteed.

Deception is never justified.

3) Researchers who allow their expectations about what they will see to affect the results of their observation studies are suffering from:

the observer effect.

participation observation.

controlled observation.

observer bias.

4) Correlation will tell researchers all of the following EXCEPT ________ between variables.

how strong the relationship is

that was not selected if there is causation

if there is a relationship

in what direction the relationship goes

5) If a correlation coefficient is positive:

only one of the variables goes up.

the number is represented by the letter p.

the two variables increase in the same direction.

the two variables have an inverse relationship.

6) Experimenters control the effects of extraneous or confounding variables upon members of experimental and control groups by using:

independent observers.


that was not selected random assignment.

double-blind studies.

7) Researchers use ________ for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data.

case studies

that was not selected the scientific method

the descriptive methods

naturalistic observation

8) A researcher wants to describe children’s normal behavior on the playground. The best method for this research is to use

a case study.

an experiment.

naturalistic observation.

a survey.

9) Which of the following illustrates psychology’s goal of control?

that was not selected using rewards to help a smoker give up cigarettes.

observing the behavior of children in preschool.

predicting students’ university grades based on their high school grades.

giving psychological tests to a new therapy client to determine the client’s symptoms.

10) When Mary took the survey in the mall, she noticed that the interviewer was wearing an Obama button. She answered the questions more favorably toward Obama than she might otherwise have, probably because:

the survey questions were biased.

she misunderstand the purpose of the survey.

that was not selected of courtesy bias.

of observer bias.

11) Dr. Jonas wanted to determine what would happen if rats were given food every time they completed a maze. He believed they would learn to complete the maze faster. This belief is called

an explanation.


a prediction.

a description.

12) Dr. Edwards wants to show a causal relationship between tobacco smoking and cancer. Dr. Edwards should:

observe people smoking.

that was not selected conduct an experiment using animal participants.

find a correlation between smoking and the rates of cancer.

conduct a telephone survey asking smokers about their health.

13) Anna is 45 years old and is suffering from hot flashes and extreme moodiness. From a(n) _____ perspective, Anna’s symptoms can be attributed to menopause.




that was not selected biopsychological

14) Mrs. O’Connor participated in a study in which she was told she would try out a new allergy medicine. She was in the group that received a sugar pill, but she believed that the pill did indeed help control her allergy symptoms. This phenomenon is known as:

the experimenter effect.

the mind-over-matter effect.

the placebo effect.

a successful experiment.

15) Sasha sat in the preschool classroom and watched the children play, writing down how well they interacted with each other. The children could see that Sasha was watching them, so they made an attempt to be extra well-behaved for her. Sasha’s research will be impacted by:

observer bias.

an inability to replicate the results.

that was not selected the observer effect.

participant observation.

16) A drug company is determining the effects of a treatment for depression. Neither the researcher nor the participants know who is getting the treatment and who is given a sugar pill. This type of study is:




an institutional review.

17) Mrs. Lewis participated in a study in which she was given no treatment for her condition. Mrs. Lewis was in the ________ group.





18) Because psychologists want to be precise and measure as carefully as they can, they use ________ to study psychology.

the scientific method


mental processes

functionalism and structuralism

19) John Watson believed that phobias:

that was not selected are learned through the process of conditioning.

are an indication of a deeper mental problem.

are the result of a traumatic event.

cannot be eliminated entirely.

20) What did Watson believe about behavior?

that it stems from unconscious motivation

that it and personality form in the first 6 years of life

that was not selected that it is learned

that it is related to repressed conflict

21) Freud believed that personality was formed:

that was not selected in the first 6 years of life.

in the first 2 years of life.

after a traumatizing event.

around puberty when the sex organs develop.

22) The psychological perspective that is associated with William James is:




that was not selected functionalism.

23) Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis:

has no place in modern scientific study.

has been completely rejected by modern psychologists.

that was not selected is still in use by professionals today, with less emphasis on sex and sexual motivations.

is as commonly used today as it was a few decades ago.

24) ________ focuses on how people think, remember, store, and use information.


Cognitive psychology

Objective introspection


25) Mary is a psychologist who focuses on the role of the conscious and unconscious minds. To which perspective does Mary ascribe?









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