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Please indicate your topic in your subject line. Human examples only, please.
There are some diseases that we tend to think of as being biological (inherited, nature) and others that we think of as being mainly environmental (nurture). As i hope you will realize, this “either or” thinking is not appropriate, that is not the way the world works.
Your mission, should you choose to accept it:
consider a disease, mental/psychological and/or physical, that you tend to think of as entirely (or “primarily”) genetic or entirely environmental and do some online research to see if there is any evidence that you are wrong. In other words, if i thought that depression was entirely biological, i would look for information that demonstrates that environmental factors influence it. Of course each disease can only be discussed once – and do not do depression (note – bipolar disorder is a form of depression). Once you have posted, be sure to return to see if any of your colleagues have asked you questions.
Please post any questions you have about this assignment here – this should be kind of interesting.
Please indicate your topic in your subject line. Human examples only, please.
Please indicate your disorder and its “type” in your subject line.
note: the word “mutation” should not appear in your answer. Genetic disorders are conditions caused by a known gene or a select group of genes – not a spontaneous mutation of a gene. It is not clear what mutation means in this context – if you inherit a genetic condition from a parent, the gene was passed to you – there was no “mutation” happening in the present day.
As always, you should not participate in the discussion until after you have done the reading for a give section.
There are 4 distinctions that you should be clear about –
1. Genetic disorders (not sex-linked and due to a single gene or a discrete set of genes)
2. Sex-linked genetic disorders
3. Sex chromosome disorders
4. Chromosomal disorders (not involving the sex chromosomes)
in some instances to say “abnormality” might be a better word than “disorder”, but that
is neither here nor there – regardless, these are 4 very different things. Please provide
an example of one of these 4 and explain why you have categorized it as you have. Note
that there should be an example of each one before you start repeating – so if someone
has posted an example of 1, 2, and 4, your only option is to post an example of 3. And
then we start again – if there are 2 examples of 1, 2, and 3, but only 1 example of 4, you
must do an example of 4. All examples must be unique and clearly explained. If
someone has made an error, please indicate this and explain why. If you would like to
know more about a condition someone has posted on, please ask a specific question.
Please be sure to give each and every post an informative subject line. Thanks!
Everyone seems to grasp what active and passive genotype-environment correlations are pretty easily, but i get very tired of always seeing the same example of evocative.
Can you offer a novel example of an evocative genotype-environment correlation? One that is not simply a revised version of examples in the text or lecture….
Note – our topic here is human development. All examples here need to be human-based. Thanks!
curious to see what you come up with. This topic may be a quickie, depending on how it goes..
Please follow below instructions for the rest of the questions
Note – all written work should be checked for spelling and grammar. Your answers should be in complete sentences. You are to use your own words. If you are quoting from the text (or anywhere else), i have no way of knowing that you understand. Point values are as indicated.
Please post any questions that you have about the questions in the “questions” discussion. Note that your discussion topics are intended to inform your written assignment answers – be sure to spend time in discussion prior to submitting your work. If you are working ahead (always a great idea!), prepare your answers and wait to submit until you have had the benefit of discussion participation.
All answers should be prepared in a word processing program. If you are unsure how to copy and paste your answers into the submission site, please ask. Your numbered answers will then be submitted in the provided submission site. Do not include the questions with your submission. Penalties will apply if you do so.
as always, you are to use your own words, work alone, and check your spelling & grammar. If you are unsure about what any of the questions are asking, feel free to pose a question in the discussion forum – this way everyone can benefit from any clarification that i provide. Some of these may be on the hard side.. Please do not include the questions with your answers and do number your answers. Thanks!
1. Using an example of a human physical characteristic, distinguish between genotype and phenotype. In your own words, explain what we mean by the terms “nature” and “nurture”? In the context of the example you have provided, explain how genotype and phenotype relate to nature and nurture. Be sure to explain yourself clearly. (3 points)
2. What do the persistence of alzheimer’s disease and parkinson’s disease demonstrate about natural selection? Does this indicate a failure of “survival of the fittest”? Why or why not? (3 points)
3. Distinguish between a chromosomal disorder and sex chromosome disorder, providing examples of each. Please note that your text does not cover this topic well and many websites will provide you with incorrect information. Be sure to read the lecture and participate in the discussion before submitting your work. If you are working ahead and the section ii discussion topics are not yet ready, please prepare your answers but wait until after you have confirmed your understanding in the related discussion to submit. (3 points)
note: “fragile x” is not a good example of anything – please do not use it as an answer here or in the discussion.
4. What is meant by a “sex-linked” or “x-linked” genetic disorder? Explain and give an example. Be careful to not confuse genetic disorders and chromosomal disorders – your text’s coverage of this is not clear. Please spend some time in the discussion if you are not clear. Please note that questions 3 and 4 are asking about different things. (3 points)
Note: “fragile x” is not a good example of anything – please do not use it as an answer here or in the discussion.
5. In your own words and with your own examples, name and explain the three heredity-environment correlations discussed in the text. During childhood, what heredity-environment correlation is most influential? At the stage of life you are in, what heredity-environment correlation is most influential? Be sure to clearly identify and explain your selections. (4 points)
6. In your own words (as always), explain what a teratogen is. Provide 3 examples of well-documented teratogens, noting the effects of each. Identify and explain two different things that complicate the study of the effects of teratogens. (4 points)
Please prepare your answers outside of the course management system, proofing your work. When you submit your answers, please number them – do not include the questions.
1. Consider what is known about memory, attention, and brain development in infancy. Does it make sense to use measures of infant intelligence as a predictor of later academic success? Be sure to explain your position clearly. (3 points)
2. Researchers have developed clever ways of “asking” babies questions – ways that do not involve words but that explore something about their abilities, interests, and perceptions. A. Describe a preference that babies appear to be born with that does not directly contribute to survival (in other words, preferences for warmth/contact, certain foods/tastes/smells, and avoiding heights are not appropriate answers). B. How has this been demonstrated in an experimental setting? C. How might this preference facilitate survival? Be sure to answer all parts of the question for full credit. (4 points)
3. How have researchers demonstrated what babies can hear? At what point in development does hearing develop? (note – the question is not asking how we can tell that they are able to hear, but that they can tell one sound from another) (3 points)
4. Using your own words, explain why piaget referred to the initial stage of cognitive development as the sensorimotor period. Provide an example to demonstrate your understanding. (please note – i have no interest in the substages that piaget discussed.) (2 points)
5. According to piaget, what is the major accomplishment of the sensorimotor period? Explain why this is such an important change – why is this a cognitive milestone? (2 points)
6. What evidence is there that nurture plays a role in the learning of language? Provide reference to two different studies for full credit. Note – studies of individuals who have experienced abuse and/or a lack of exposure to language are not appropriate (there should be no reference to genie or any instance of “wild children” in your answer). (3 points)
7. How has attachment been studied in non-human primates? What has the work with primates revealed to us about the basis for attachment? Note – “basis” is a reference to what leads to attachment – explaining what attachment is is not the basis for attachment. (3 points)
You are to use your own words – and complete sentences – your answers should be understandable without reference to the questions. This helps me when i am grading and, more importantly, encourages you to process the information more deeply – increasing the chances of your retention.
1. A. What did piaget mean when he said that the preoperational child “lacked conservation”? B. What is centration? C. Explain the relationship between centration and conservation. D. Provide an example to illustrate your understanding. Your example should demonstrate how conservation and centration are related. Remember, as always, to use your own words. (4 points)
2. A. Explain the difference between authoritative and authoritarian parenting. B. Provide examples of each to illustrate your understanding. C. Which form of parenting appears to be most effective? D. With which philosophy of childhood is this most consistent (this refers to material in section i). Be sure to explain yourself fully. (4 points)
3. Explain what piaget meant by “egocentrism” and provide an example of an egocentric adult that illustrates this concept. As always, be sure to spend time in discussion before submitting your answers. (2 points)
4. Describe the psychoanalytic theory of gender. What does this theory seek to explain? Who developed this theory? (2 points)
5. What is “scaffolding”? Explain and give an example of scaffolding that you, as an adult, have experienced (where you were the recipient of scaffolding). Your example should demonstrate a form of scaffolding that differs from those discussed in section iii (your examples should always be your examples – not the same examples are provided in the text). Please note – your text offers a very limited explanation and example of scaffolding – please keep this in mind as you prepare your answer. And, as always, be sure to spend time in discussion before you submit your answers. (3 points)
6. In early childhood, what stage is a child in according to freud? In early childhood, what stage is a child in according to erikson? (2 points)
7. Is project head start an effective program? Why or why not? (3 points)
Question 1 (3 points)
assuming children are supplied with all needed school supplies and attend good schools, does socioeconomic status appear to have an effect on school success? Why or why not? Be sure to explain your answer. What does this indicate about the impact of nurture on development?
Question 2 (3 points)
considering the variations in intelligence and what is known about cognitive development and mental abilities during middle and late childhood, how should the classroom environment be structured so as to best meet the needs of all students? Make a proposal and support it – there is no single correct answer to this question.
Question 3 (3 points)
time to do some research – consider the theories provided by piaget and vygotsky. Explain how each views the construction of knowledge. Which do you think is most valid, and why? Please note that your answer should not discuss piaget’s stages – it should consider how he thought we acquired knowledge.
Question 4 (3 points)
reminder – all answers are to be in your own words. A. What is “bullying”? B. What are social cognitions? C. What role might social cognitions play in causing bullying behavior? Explain and provide a unique example to illustrate your explanation. (in other words, i should not see the example in the text.)
Question 5 (2 points)
is it correct to describe some cognitive abilities as male and some as female? Why or why not?
Question 6 (3 points)
explain the concept of androgyny and give an example of a person who is androgynous. Under what circumstances is androgyny disadvantageous (i.e., bad)? Please note that it is commonly advantageous in modern american society, so think beyond the world in which you live.
Question 7 (3 points)
time to venture out into the web. Is there any evidence to suggest that sometimes positive self esteem might be a bad thing? Give me the url for the study (that’s the web address) and tell me about it. If you are not sure how to do this, post a question in the discussion.
1. Considering what is known about the teenage brain and sexual development, are messages of “just say no” likely to be effective when it comes to drug use and sex? Why or why not? Be sure to explain your answer. Please note your answer should make reference to both adolescent brain and sexual development. (3 points)
2. What cognitive features characterize the adolescent? Name and explain two specific cognitive characteristic(s) of adolescents that explain why their physical development often causes them much concern. What about how they think makes their changing bodies bother them so? (3 points)
3. Compare and contrast anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Which of these eating disorders is more dangerous? Be sure to explain your selection. (3 points)
4. What is a rite of passage and what purpose do rites of passage serve? Discuss at least two examples of rites of passages in your own life. Be sure to note what purpose they were intended to serve – and whether or not they were effective. (4 points)
5. When considering identity, what did marcia mean by a “crisis”? Give two examples of crises to illustrate your understanding. (3 points)
6. What is meant by a “foreclosed” identity? What type of parenting would be most likely to result in this identity status? Give an example of an individual who is identity foreclosed. Is identity “fixed”, or can identity status change? Be sure to explain your answer. (4 points)
1. In this section we look at a form of thinking that goes beyond piaget’s final stage. Considering that many people do not even achieve formal operational thinking, it might seem odd to speak of cognitive skills that are above and beyond what piaget envisioned. Why might piaget not have recognized that there was a form of thinking more sophisticated than his final stage? As always, be sure to explain your answer thoroughly. (3 points)
2. Is young adulthood better characterized as a period of health-improving lifestyles or health-impairing lifestyles? Be sure to explain and justify your response. (2 points)
3. What is the psychosocial task of young adulthood? In your opinion, does erikson’s vision of the psychosocial task of young adulthood still apply today? Why or why not? As always, be sure to explain yourself fully. (3 points)
4. (a) how do expectations about marriage contribute to the failure of marriages? (b) what other factors can you identify that explain today’s high divorce rate? Please provide at least two – consider how times have changed and other relevant things that you have read about. (c) is there any evidence to suggest that marriage is actually good for you? As always, be sure to explain yourself and to answer all parts of the question. (4 points)
5. Explain, in your own words, consensual validation and the matching hypothesis. Be sure to differentiate between the two concepts. Based on your experience, do you see support for these concepts? As always, be sure to explain and support your response. (2 points)
6. Describe two studies that could be conducted to identify a biological basis for sexual orientation. (this is a thought question – don’t be looking for the answer in your text!) Considering the research that has been conducted (and discussed in the text and/or elsewhere), what do you think determines sexual orientation? (4 points)
7. Consider the concept of “emerging adulthood”. Explain why this stage has been proposed and what it is. Is there a need, in your opinion, for this view of adulthood? Why or why not? (2 points)
1. How are erikson’s and levinson’s theories of adult development alike? How are they different? Which do you think is the most valid and why? (4 points)
2. How does intelligence change, if at all, in middle adulthood? (2 points)
3. Are physical changes inevitable in middle age? Be sure to explain your position thoroughly. (2 points)
4. What similarities exist between adolescence and middle age? (feel free to be creative!) (2 points)
5. How have views of middle age and old age changed in more recent times? Have you seen any changes in the portrayal of the later years in the media? And is it getting better or worse to “get older” in the u.s. Today? (3 points)
6. What is a social clock? Have you found that your life is influenced by a social clock? Be sure to explain your answer. (2 points)
7. What changes, if any, in sexual activity are seen in middle age? If changes are seen, why do they occur? (3 points)
8. Is there such a thing as a “midlife crisis”? Explain your answer fully. (2 points)
1. Describe two different ways of categorizing or classifying those who have reached late adulthood (note – these should not be retired vs not tired, but ways in which the elderly can be categorized into at least 3 different “levels”). Which is more useful? Why? (4 points)
2. How socially connected should the elderly be? Take a position and support it with research. (4 points)
3. What do a two-year-old and an 80-year-old have in common? (multiple correct answers – just be sure that you have explained yourself – and you have stated something that is not true about every age) (4 points)
4. What do we mean by “qualitative” vs “quantitative” change? What qualitative changes happen in late adulthood? What quantitative changes happen in late adulthood? Give two examples of each for full credit. (5 points)
5. If you were placing a relative into a nursing home, what features would you look for in that home – and why? (3 points
Please be very thorough as the more thoughtful your answer, the more points you will receive. You will use sources such as your textbook, so you must reference them in your answer (read the syllabus and also see how the textbook does this).
Do not cut and paste or copy word-for-word from your sources. You will not receive credit if you do this. Paraphrase what you read or you must use quotation marks for exact words you take from your source.
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