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1. In general, when selecting factors for a study, you want to be sure of which of these?
a. they have been investigated before
b. they are available to investigate
c. they are not of interest to you
d. they do not lead to another question
2. Non experimental research methods consist of which of the following?
a. test causal relationships between variables
b. only describe characteristics of existing phenomenon
c. can be descriptive, historical or correlation
d. examine factors that are not related
3. When variables compete to explain the same effects, what are they sometimes called?
4. What is another term for the independent variable?
a. treatment variable
b. dependent variable
c. control variable
d. factorial variable
5. What type of variable masks the true relationship between the independent and dependent variables?
a. extraneous variable
b. moderator variable
c. control variable
d. neutral variable
6. Why is a null hypothesis said to be implied?
a.lt’s always directly tested.
b. It’s never directly tested.
c. You do not need to test it to know that it is false.
d. It is stated in a question form.
7. The best dependent variable is defined by which of the following characteristics?
a. independent of any other variable in the same study
b. sensitive to changes in the treatment
c. can be manipulated by the researcher
d. interacts with the independent variable
8. Which type of source is NOT typically included in a literature review?
a. tertiary sources
b. general sources
c. secondary sources
d. primary sources
9. What does the ethical principle of “sharing benefits” mean?
a. all participants in the same study should receive an equal share of the benefits or subject payments
b. all those who belong to the population being studied will share equally from the benefits the study produces
c. the results of studies must be shared with the public so society may benefit from the increased knowledge
d. all groups involved in a study should eventually be given an opportunity to receive any treatments that were found to be effective in the study
10. A table of random numbers _____________ _
a. is used in non probability sampling methods
b. can be used to create a stratified sample
c. works well with convenience sampling
d. is a list of ordered numbers from which the researcher closes his eyes and randomly points until he obtains the desired number for his sample
11. Which design uses no control group and no random selection?
a. true experimental
12. Which allows for in-depth examination of specific behaviors?
a. nonequivalent control group design
b. static group comparison
c. single-subject design
d. one-group pretest posttest design
13. What is the primary advantage of ABAB design?
a. addressing ethical concerns
b. lower cost
c. less time involved
d. easier training
14. If it is not possible to randomize or administer a pretest, what is the best choice of design?
a. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
b. static group design
c. nonequivalent control group design
d. Solomon four-group design
15. Single-subject designs have roots in which of the following views of development?
d. social learning
16. Which part of a research proposal is included at the author’s discretion?
b. implications and limitations
c. review of literature
17. Which is NOT a common criticism of research articles?
a. data collection not carefully controlled
b. weaknesses in design of research
c. hypothesis was not interesting
d. limitations of the study were not stated
18. Which of the following would be found in the method section?
b. running head
c. rationale for the research
19. ln what order are multiple authors listed on a manuscript?
b. order of contribution
c. alphabetically by institution
d. ranked by number of publications
20. How many words in length should your abstract be?
d. There is no limit.
21. ln a manuscript, the hypothesis _
a. is not always stated
b. is stated in the method section
c. may be found in the introduction
d. both a and c
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