Mcqs – the research process (only experts in the subject should try)

1. In general, when selecting factors for a study, you want to be sure of which of these?

a. they have been investigated before

b. they are available to investigate

c. they are not of interest to you

d. they do not lead to another question

2. Identify and select the correct order of steps in scientific inquiry.

a. formulating a hypothesis, collecting relevant information, testing the hypothesis,

working with the hypothesis

b. reconsidering the theory, asking new questions, identifying the important factors,

collecting relevant information

c. asking the question, identifying the important factors, asking new questions, testing

the hypothesis

d. asking new questions, reconsidering the theory, working with the hypothesis, testing

the hypothesis

3. Nonexperimental research methods consist of which of the following?

a. test causal relationships between variables

b. only describe characteristics of existing phenomenon

c. can be descriptive, historical or correlational

d. examine factors that are not related

4. Hannah assigns children to different teaching method groups and tests their math performance

after six weeks. This is an example of what type of research?

a. descriptive

b. historical

c. experimental

d. uncontrolled

5. Which of the following methods provides information about past trends?

a. historical

b. correlational

c. experimental

d. descriptive



6. Matthew thinks that there is a relationship between parenting style and self-esteem in

children. Which research method should he use?

a. correlational

b. quasi-experimental

c. descriptive

d. historical

7. When variables compete to explain the same effects, what are they sometimes called?

a. contradictory

b. intertwining

c. confounding

d. interdependent

8. What is another term for the independent variable?

a. treatment variable

b. dependent variable

c. control variable

d. factorial variable

9. What type of variable masks the true relationship between the independent and dependent variables?

a. extraneous variable

b. moderator variable

c. control variable

d. neutral variable

10. Why is a null hypothesis said to be implied?’s always directly tested.

b. It’s never directly tested.

c. You do not need to test it to know that it is false.

d. It is stated in a question form.

11. The interpretation of “differences are significant” means that the differences found are __________ _


a. probably not due to chance

b. due to chance

c. creative outcomes

d. not dictated by the hypothesis


12. The best dependent variable is defined by which of the following characteristics?

a. independent of any other variable in the same study

b. sensitive to changes in the treatment

c. can be manipulated by the researcher

d. interacts with the independent variable

13. Which of the following is a good way to find a research topic?

a. personal experience

b. getting an idea from your advisor

c. looking for the next step in the research process

d. All of the above.

14. Which type of source is NOT typically included in a literature review?

a. tertiary sources

b. general sources

c. secondary sources

d. primary sources

15. What is one of the advantages of using online search services?

a. you are not likely to miss very much

b. this is an outdated method

c. it IS stated In a declarative form

d. you can enter the data for anyone reference using a standard form

16. Forcing someone to participate in a study is an example of what ethical issue/concern?

a. protection from harm

b. maintenance of privacy

c. informed consent

d. coercion

17. What is the best definition of an institutional review board?

a. a group of people who make decisions regarding an institution’s human resources

b. a group of people found in most public institutions and private agencies who render a


judgment as to whether experiments carried out in their facilities are free from risk


c.a group of people who review the literature produced by researchers in their

institution in order to keep an accounting of it

d. a group of people representing many different institutions who meet to review the

current literature in their respective fields



18. What does the ethical principle of “sharing benefits” mean?

a. all participants in the same study should receive an equal share of the benefits or

subject payments

b. all those who belong to the population being studied will share equally from the

benefits the study produces

c. the results of studies must be shared with the public so society may benefit from the

increased knowledge

d. all groups involved in a study should eventually be given an opportunity to receive any

treatments that were found to be effective in the study

19. Which is NOT a component of informed consent?

a. the purpose of the research

b. who you are

c. how the participant can get a copy of the records

d. a computer simulation of the data

20. What is the purpose of a table of random numbers?

a. determine the number of subjects in a study

b. decide what statistical test to use

c. randomly assign people to groups

d. number items on a questionnaire

21. What does generalizability refer to?

a. results that may be applied to different populations in different settings

b. results that apply only to the sample studied

c. convenience sampling

d. using a table of random numbers

22. A table of random numbers _____________ _

a. is used in nonprobability sampling methods

b. can be used to create a stratified sample

c. works well with convenience sampling

d. is a list of ordered numbers from which the researcher closes his eyes and randomly

points until he obtains the desired number for his sample


23. What is the most unbiased tool that can be used in random selection?

a. random sampling

b. table of random numbers

c. quota sampling

d. direct sampling

24. When is a stratified sample an appropriate sampling technique?

a. specific characteristics of the population are of no concern

b. individuals in a population are not equal

c. each member must have an equal chance of being selected

d. you have a small population

25. Which of the following is NOT a probability sampling method?

a. simple random sampling

b. quota sampling

c. stratified sampling

d. cluster sampling


1. Which design uses no control group and no random selection?

a. true experimental

b. quasi-experimental

c. pre-experimental

d. causal-comparative

8. Which allows for in-depth examination of specific behaviors?

a. nonequivalent control group design

b. static group comparison

c. single-subject design

d. one-group pretest posttest design

10. What is the primary advantage of ABAB design?

a. addressing ethical concerns

b. lower cost

c. less time involved

d. easier training

11. If it is not possible to randomize or administer a pretest, what is the best choice of design?

a. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

b. static group design

c. nonequivalent control group design

d. Solomon four-group design

13. Single-subject designs have roots in which of the following views of development?

a. Piagetian

b. behavioral

c. organismic

d. social learning

15. Which part of a research proposal is included at the author’s discretion?

a. introduction

b. implications and limitations

c. review of literature

d. method

16. Which is NOT a common criticism of research articles?

a. data collection not carefully controlled

b. weaknesses in design of research

c. hypothesis was not interesting

d. limitations of the study were not stated

17. Which of the following would be found in the method section?

a. introduction

b. running head

c. rationale for the research

d. participants

20.ln what order are multiple authors listed on a manuscript?

a. alphabetically

b. order of contribution

c. alphabetically by institution

d. ranked by number of publications

22. How many words in length should your abstract be?



c. 300

d. There is no limit.

24.ln a manuscript, the hypothesis _

a. is not always stated

b. is stated in the method section

c. may be found in the introduction

d. both a and c


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