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What are the 4 schedules of reinforcement? Please resubmit for full credit, after you have reviewed the Rubric.
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The term reinforce means to strengthen, and is used in psychology to refer to anything stimulus which strengthens or increases the probability of a specific response. For example, if you want your dog to sit on command, you may give him a treat every time he sits for you. The dog will eventually come to understand that sitting when told to will result in a treat. This treat is reinforcing because he likes it and will result in him sitting when instructed to do so.We all apply reinforces everyday, most of the time without even realizing we are doing it. You may tell your child “good job” after he or she cleans their room; perhaps you tell your partner how good he or she look when they dress up; or maybe you got a raise at work after doing a great job on a project. All of these things increase the probability that the same response will be repeated.
Punishment, also known as Positive Punishment, is any stimulus that represses a behavior. It is important to note that punishment is not the same as negative reinforcement. Is failing a test negative reinforcement or punishment? If it motivates you to study more it is negative reinforcement.It increases the behavior of studying). However, if you feel that studying is actually hurting your performance (due to, for example, test anxiety) you will perceive that failing the test was due to studying too hard. Next time, you will not study (i.e., decrease your behavior) so that you will not be punished for it. Now you just need to convince your professor that bad grades are actually causing you to study less.
Extinction is from conditioning and refers to the reduction of some response that the organism currently or previously produced. In classical conditioning this results from the unconditioned stimulus NOT occurring after the conditioned stimulus is presented over time. In operant conditioning it results from some response by the organism no longer being reinforced (for example, you keep getting your dog to sit on command, but you stop giving it a treat or any other type of reinforcement. Over time, the dog may not sit every time you give the command).Schedules
Fixed-Interval Schedule (FI) – A fixed-interval schedule means that reinforcement becomes available after a specific period of time. The schedule is abbreviated into “FI” followed by the amount of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes available, e.g. an F I2 would mean reinforcement becomes available after 2 minutes has passed; an FI 20 means 20 minutes must pass and so on. Fixed-Ratio Schedule.
A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement means that reinforcement should be delivered after a constant or “fixed” number of correct responses. For example, a fixed ratio schedule of 2 means reinforcement is delivered after every 2 correct responses. The chosen number could be 5, 10, 20 or it could be 100 or more; there is no limit but the number must be defined. Generally, when writing out a fixed-ratio schedule into the discrete trial script it is shortened into just “FR” with the number of required correct responses stated after it (Maillot & Trojan-Suarez, 2006). For example, choosing to reinforce for every second correct response would be written as “FR2”; reinforcing for every fifth correct response would be an “FR5”; for every 100 correct responses would be an “FR 100” and so on.
Variable-Interval Schedule The variable-interval (VI) schedule of reinforcement means the time periods that must pass before reinforcement becomes available will “vary” but must average out at a specific time interval. Again the time interval can be any number but must be defined. Following a “VI3” schedule of reinforcement, a teacher could make reinforcement available after 2 minutes, then 5 minutes, then 3 minutes, then 4 minutes and finally 1 minute. In this example, reinforcement became available 5 times over a total interval period of 15 minutes. On average then, three minutes had to pass before reinforcement became available (2 + 5 + 3 + 4 + 1 = 15 ÷ 5 = 3) and so this was a VI3 schedule.
Variable-Ratio Schedule (VR) -When using a variable-ratio, (VR), the schedule of reinforcement the delivery of reinforcement will “vary” but must average out at a specific number. Just like a fixed-ratio schedule, a variable-ratio schedule can be any number but must be defined. For example, a teacher following a “VR2” schedule of reinforcement might give reinforcement after 1 correct response, then after 3 more correct responses, then 2 more, then 1 more and finally after 3 more correct responses.
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