Replies 1 and 2 | Psychology homework help

 (When responding to your classmates’ posts, evaluate the effects of their chosen outliers.)

please reply to the outlier below

reply 1

   An example of an outlier in the real world would be a birth defect. For this discussion I will focus on neural tube defects such as an encephalocele or spina bifida to narrow it down. Birth defects in the United States alone affects one out of thirty-three babies, roughly 33% of all babies, and is the leading cause of 20% of infant deaths (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). 

   The neural tube defect encephalocele is a “sac-like protrusion” of the brain (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). In 2013. my nephew was born with an occipital encephalocele as a result from the neural tube not closing properly/completely during the first few crucial weeks of gestation. It is estimated that 1 out 12,200 babies in the United States will have an ecephalocele each year (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). While there has yet to be an exact cause to be discovered, there is a genetic factor to this defect. In 2004 my brother passed away in utero at around 17 weeks gestation due to spina bifida, another neural tube defect that affects the lower region of the spine. Due to this, he was paralyzed from the waist down.

   Despite these birth defects being outliers, it causes an effect in prenatal care. For myself, because two neural tube defect cases occurred in my immediate family in the span of ten years, it meant that I have been on folic acid supplements for the last four years, which can help prevent neural tube defects. A recommended 400 micrograms of this B vitamin on a daily basis before pregnancy and during pregnancy has increased the chances of carrying a healthy baby (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). Personally, I was on 800 micrograms before my pregnancy and after I became pregnant my doctor upped my dosage to ensure the prevention of defects.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (September 21, 2016). Data & statistics. Retrieved from

please reply to attached post 2 (outlier)

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